Fear and anxiety are at the root of many dog behavior problems. Some – like growling at strangers, urine marking or jumping without permission -- may not seem to be anxiety-related, but in fact they often are. If you’re tempted to punish a behavior but are not sure about its motivation, err on the side of kindness and try a different strategy. If the unwanted behavior is truly voluntary, try positive reinforcement of a different behavior. But if it’s an emotional, stress-based behavior, take your dog out of the situation as quickly as possible, or try associating the “scary thing” with bite-sized liver treats, a squeaky toy or just happy talk.